|The MD-2 ly96 (Catalog #MBS584307) is an Antibody produced from Mouse and is intended for research purposes only. The product is available for immediate purchase. The MD-2, Human, mAb 18H10 reacts with Human and may cross-react with other species as described in the data sheet. MyBioSource\'s MD-2 can be used in a range of immunoassay formats including, but not limited to, Flow Cytometry (FC/FACS), FS.
Application Use: For flow cytometry, dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50. For functional studies, dilutions have to be made according to the amounts of MD-2 to be inactivated. Researchers should empirically determine the suitability of the MD-2 ly96 for an application not listed in the data sheet. Researchers commonly develop new applications and it is an integral, important part of the investigative research process.
The MD-2 ly96 product has the following accession number(s) (GI #5051740) (NCBI Accession #BAA78717.1). Researchers may be interested in using Bioinformatics databases such as those available at The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website for more information about accession numbers and the proteins they represent. Even researchers unfamiliar with bioinformatics databases will find the NCBI databases to be quite user friendly and useful.
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Product Description: The monoclonal antibody 18H10 reacts with MD-2, an accessory molecule of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, CD284). TLRs belong to a family of proteins that specifically recognizes and senses microbial products. They are highly conserved throughout evolution and act as innate immune recognition receptors against many pathogens. TLR4 is a functional receptor for gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). TLR4 associates with MD-2 which is absolutely required for LPS-induced activation of TLR4. MD-2 exists as a cell surface protein in association with TLR4. It also exists as secreted forms consisting of MD-2 monomers and multimers (sMD-2). Circulating sMD-2 is mainly present as a doublet of ~20 and 25 kD, representing differentially glycosylated forms. Unlike TLR4, sMD-2 binds directly LPS without the need of soluble CD14 (sCD14). However, LPS-MD-2 interactions are increased when LPS is pretreated with CD14. Only monomeric sMD-2 is biologically active and able to associate with TLR4 and LPS. sMD-2 circulates in plasma of healthy individuals as a non-active, polymeric protein. In septic plasma, the total amount of sMD-2 was strongly elevated and contained both sMD-2 polymers and monomers. Soluble MD-2 is proposed to be an important mediator of organ inflammation during sepsis. During experimental human endotoxemia, the monomeric and total sMD-2 content in plasma increased with the kinetics of an acute phase protein. This parallels enhanced TLR4 costimulatory activity. In vitro studies revealed that sMD-2 release appears to be restricted to endothelial and dendritic cells. The monoclonal antibody 18H10 reacts with MD-2. However, it does not react with sMD-2. In addition, the monoclonal antibody 18H10 is able to inhibit bacterial binding to MD-2.